»Vault Limits and Maximums

Vault imposes fixed upper limits on the size of certain fields and objects, and configurable limits on others. Vault also has upper bounds that are a consequence of its underlying storage. This page attempts to collect these limits, to assist in planning Vault deployments.

In some cases, the system will show performance problems in advance of the absolute limits being reached.

»Storage-Related limits

»Storage entry size

The maximum size of an object written to a storage backend is determined by that backend.

For the Consul storage backend, the default limit imposed by Consul is 512 KiB. This may be configured via Consul’s kv_max_value_size parameter, introduced in version 1.5.3.

For the integrated storage backend, the default limit (introduced in Vault 1.5.0) is 1 MiB. This may be configured via max_entry_size in the storage stanza.

Many of the other limits within Vault derive from the maximum size of a storage entry, as described in the next sections. It is possible to recover from an error where a storage entry has reached its maximum size by reconfiguring Vault or Consul to a larger maximum storage entry. However, using large storage entries also negatively affects performance, as even a small change may become a large read-modify-write cycle on the entire entry. Larger writes may also delay Raft heartbeats, leading to leadership instability.

»Mount point limits

All secret engine mount points, and all auth mount points, must each fit within a single storage entry. Each JSON object describing a mount takes about 500 bytes, but is stored in compressed form at a typical cost of about 75 bytes. Each of (1) auth mounts, (2) secret engine mount points, (3) local-only auth methods, and (4) local-only secret engine mounts are stored separately, so the limit applies to each independently.

Consul default (512 KiB)Integrated storage default (1 MiB)
Maximum number of secret engine mount points~7000~14000
Maximum number of enabled auth methods~7000~14000
Maximum mount point lengthno enforced limitno enforced limit

Specifying distinct per-mount options, or using long mount point paths, can increase the space required per mount.

The number of mount points can be monitored by reading the sys/auth and sys/mounts endpoints, which contain all mount points in all namespaces.

»Namespace limits

The entire list of namespaces must fit in a single storage entry. However, the effective limit is generally much smaller because each namespace must have at least two secret engine mounts (for sys and identity), one local secret engine (cubbyhole) and one auth engine mount (token).

Consul default (512 KiB)Integrated storage default (1 MiB)
Maximum number of namespaces~3500~7000
Maximum number of namespaces with one additional secret engine per namespace~2300~4600
Maximum nesting depth for namespaces~160~220

The maximum nesting depth calculation assumes a cost of 40 bytes per namespace path element. 160 nested paths = 160 namespaces ranging from 40 bytes to 6400 bytes.

The number of namespaces can be monitored by querying sys/namespaces.

To estimate the number of namespaces that can be created, divide the mount point limit by the larger of of the number of auth mounts per namespace (including ns_token) and the number of secret mounts per namespace (including identity and sys.)

»Entity and group limits

The metadata that may be attached to an identity entity or an entity group has the following constraints:

Limit
Number of key-value pairs in metadata64
Metadata key size128 bytes
Metadata value size512 bytes

Vault shards the entities across 256 storage entries. This creates a hard limit of 128MiB storage space used for entities on Consul, or 256MiB on integrated storage with its default settings. Entity aliases are stored inline in the Entity objects and so consume the same pool of storage. Entity definitions are compressed within each storage entry, and the pre-compression size varies with the number of entity aliases and the amount of metadata. Minimally-populated entities about 200 bytes after compression.

Group definitions are stored separately, in their own pool of 256 storage entries. The size of each group object depends on the number of members and the amount of metadata. Group aliases and group membership information is stored inline in each Group object. A group with no metadata, holding 10 entities, will use about 500 bytes per group. A group holding 100 entities would instead consume about 4,000 bytes.

The following table shows a best-case estimate and a more conservative estimate for entities and groups. The number is slightly less than the amount that fits in one shard, to reflect the fact that the first shard to fill up will start inducing failures. This maximum will decrease if each entity has a large amount of metadata, or if each group has a large number of members.

Consul default (512 KiB)Integrated storage default (1 MiB)
Maximum number of identity entities (best case, 200 bytes per entity)~610,000~1,1250,000
Maximum number of identity entities (conservative case, 500 bytes per entity)~250,000~480,000
Maximum number of identity entities (maximum permitted metadata, 41160 bytes per entity)6702,400
Maximum number of groups (10 entities per group)~250,000~480,000
Maximum number of groups (100 entities per group)~22,000~50,000
Maximum number of members in a group~11,500~23,000

The number of entities can be monitored using Vault's telemetry; see vault.identity.num_entities (total) or vault.identity.entities.count (by namespace).

The cost of entity and group updates grows as the number of objects in each shard increases. This cost can be monitored via the vault.identity.upsert_entity_txn and the vault.identity.upsert_group_txn metrics.

Very large internal groups should be avoided (more than 1000 members), because the membership list in a group must reside in a single storage entry. Instead, consider using external groups or split the group up into multiple sub-groups.

»Token limits

One storage entry is used per token; there is thus no upper bound on the number of active tokens. There are no restrictions on the token metadata field, other than the entire token must fit into one storage entry:

Limit
Number of key-value pairs in metadatano limit
Metadata key sizeno limit
Metadata value sizeno limit
Total size of token metadata512 KiB

»Policy limits

The maximum size of a policy is limited by the storage entry size. Policy lists that appear in tokens or entities must fit within a single storage entry.

Consul default (512 KiB)Integrated storage default (1 MiB)
Maximum policy size512 KiB1 MiB
Maximum number of policies per namespaceno limitno limit
Maximum number of policies per token~14,000~28,000
Maximum number of policies per entity or group~14,000~28,000

Each time a token is used, Vault must assemble the collection of policies attached to that token, to the entity, to any groups that the entity belongs to, and recursively to any groups that contain those groups. Very large numbers of policies are possible, but can cause Vault’s response time to increase. You can monitor the vault.core.fetch_acl_and_token metric to determine if the time required to assemble an access control list is becoming excessive.

»Versioned key-value store (kv-v2 secret engine)

Limit
Number of secretsno limit, up to available storage capacity
Maximum size of one version of a secretslightly less than one storage entry (512 KiB or 1024 KiB)
Number of versions of a secretdefault 10; configurable per-secret or per-mount
Maximum number of versions (not checked when configured)at least 24,000

Each version of a secret must fit in a single storage entry; the key-value pairs are converted to JSON before storage.

Version metadata consumes 21 bytes per version and must fit in a single storage entry, separate from the stored data.

»Transit secret engine

The maximum size of a Transit ciphertext or plaintext is limited by Vault's maximum request size, as described below.

All archived versions of a single key must fit in a single storage entry. This limit depends on the key size.

Key lengthConsul default (512 KiB)Integrated storage default (1 MiB)
aes128-gcm96 keys20084017
aes128-gcm96 keys18653731
chacha-poly1305 keys18653731
ed25519 keys14202841
ecdsa-p256 keys8171635
ecdsa-p384 keys6591318
ecdsa-p523 keys5391078
1024-bit RSA keys169333
2048-bit RSA keys116233
4096-bit RSA kyes89178

»Other limits

»Request size

The maximum size of an HTTP request sent to Vault is limited by the maximum_request_size option in the listener stanza. It defaults to 32 MiB. This value, minus the overhead of the HTTP request itself, places an upper bound on any Transit operation, and on the maximum size of any key-value secrets.

»Request duration

The maximum duration of a Vault operation is max_request_duration, which defaults to 90 seconds. If a particular secret engine takes longer than this to perform an operation on a remote service, the Vault client will see a failure.

The environment variable VAULT_CLIENT_TIMEOUT sets a client-side maximum duration as well, which is 60 seconds by default.

»Cluster and replication limits

There are no implementation limits on the maximum size of a cluster, or the maximum number of replicas associated with a primary. However, each replica or performance standby adds considerable overhead to the active node, as each write must be duplicated to all standbys. The overhead of resyncing multiple replicas at once is also high.

Monitor the active Vault node's CPU and network utilization, as well as the lag between the last WAL and replica WAL, to determine if the maximum number of replicas has been exceeded.

Limit
Maximum cluster sizeno limit, up to active node capability
Maximum number of DR replicasno limit, up to active node capability
Maximum number of performance replicasno limit, up to active node capability

»Lease limits

A systemwide maximum TTL, and a maximum TTL per mount point can be configured.

Although no technical maximum exists, high lease counts can cause degradation in system performance. We recommend short default time-to-live values on tokens and leases to avoid a large backlog of unexpired leases, or a large number of simultaneous expirations.

Limit
Maximum number of leasesadvisory limit at 256,000
Maximum duration of lease or token768 hours by default

The current number of unexpired leases can be monitored via the vault.expire.num_leases metric.

»Transform limits

The Transform secret engine obeys the FF3-1 minimum and maximum sizes on the length of an input, which are a function of the alphabet size.