» Vault Enterprise Identity

In version 0.8, Vault introduced the foundations of identity management system. The goal of identity in Vault is to associate a notion of caller identity to the tokens used in Vault.

» Concepts

» Entities and Aliases

Each user will have multiple accounts with various identity providers. Users can now be mapped as Entities and their corresponding accounts with authentication providers can be mapped as Aliases. In essence, each entity is made up of zero or more aliases.

» Entity Management

Entities in Vault do not automatically pull identity information from anywhere. It needs to be explicitly managed by operators. This way, it is flexible in terms of administratively controlling the number of entities to be synced against Vault. In some sense, Vault will serve as a cache of identities and not as a source of identities.

» Entity Policies

Vault policies can be assigned to entities which will grant additional permissions to the token on top of the existing policies on the token. If the token presented on the API request contains an identifier for the entity and if that entity has a set of policies on it, then the token will be capable of performing actions allowed by the policies on the entity as well.

This is a paradigm shift in terms of when the policies of the token get evaluated. Before identity, the policy names on the token were immutable (not the contents of those policies though). But with entity policies, along with the immutable set of policy names on the token, the evaluation of policies applicable to the token through its identity will happen at request time. This also adds enormous flexibility to control the behavior of already issued tokens.

Its important to note that the policies on the entity are only a means to grant additional capabilities and not a replacement for the policies on the token. To know the full set of capabilities of the token with an associated entity identifier, the policies on the token should be taken into account.

» Mount Bound Aliases

Vault supports multiple authentication backends and also allows enabling the same type of authentication backend on different mount paths. The alias name of the user will be unique within the backend's mount. But identity store needs to uniquely distinguish between conflicting alias names across different mounts of these identity providers. Hence, the alias name in combination with the authentication backend mount's accessor, serve as the unique identifier of an alias.

» Implicit Entities

Operators can create entities for all the users of an auth mount beforehand and assign policies to them, so that when users login, the desired capabilities to the tokens via entities are already assigned. But if that's not done, upon a successful user login from any of the authentication backends, Vault will create a new entity and assign an alias against the login that was successful.

Note that the tokens created using the token authentication backend will not have an associated identity information. Logging in using the authentication backends is the only way to create tokens that have a valid entity identifiers.

» Identity Auditing

If the token used to make API calls have an associated entity identifier, it will be audit logged as well. This leaves a trail of actions performed by specific users.

» Identity Groups

In version 0.9, Vault identity has support for groups. A group can contain multiple entities as its members. A group can also have subgroups. Policies set on the group is granted to all members of the group. During request time, when the token's entity ID is being evaluated for the policies that it has access to; along with the policies on the entity itself, policies that are inherited due to group memberships are also granted.

» Group Hierarchical Permissions

Entities can be direct members of groups, in which case they inherit the policies of the groups they belong to. Entities can also be indirect members of groups. For example, if a GroupA has GroupB as subgroup, then members of GroupB are indirect members of GroupA. Hence, the members of GroupB will have access to policies on both GroupA and GroupB.

» External vs Internal Groups

By default, the groups created in identity store are called the internal groups. The membership management of these groups should be carried out manually. A group can also be created as an external group. In this case, the entity membership in the group is managed semi-automatically. External group serves as a mapping to a group that is outside of the identity store. External groups can have one (and only one) alias. This alias should map to a notion of group that is outside of the identity store. For example, groups in LDAP, and teams in GitHub. A username in LDAP, belonging to a group in LDAP, can get its entity ID added as a member of a group in Vault automatically during logins and token renewals. This works only if the group in Vault is an external group and has an alias that maps to the group in LDAP. If the user is removed from the group in LDAP, that change gets reflected in Vault only upon the subsequent login or renewal operation.


Vault identity can be managed entirely over the HTTP API. Please see Identity API for more details.