»What is a Client?

Before we dive into understanding the approach used to count the number of clients accessing Vault, we need to first understand what clients represent. Clients basically represent anything that has authenticated to Vault to do something. Users are people who log into the cluster to manage policies, set up dynamic secret rotation, and more. So every user that logs into the Vault is considered a client. Whereas every application, service, or any other machine-based system that authenticates to Vault is also considered a client.

Vault Client Workflows

There are three main ways clients are assigned an identity:

  1. External Identity Management Platform or SSO: Active Directory, LDAP, OIDC, JWT, GitHub, Username/password, etc.
  2. Platform or server-based identities: Kubernetes, AWS, GCP, Azure, PKI, Cloud Foundry, etc.
  3. Self Identity: AppRole, tokens (without an associated auth path or role)

Vault Client Types

There can be many different types of clients that authenticate and communicate with Vault using one of the above identities, including:

  1. Human users: GitHub ID, username/password, LDAP, Active Directory, Kerberos, JWT/ OIDC claims, OKTA
  2. Applications or Microservices: 2-Factor Authentication methods such as AppRole, or by LDAP, Active Directory, or based on the platform’s identity, such as credentials from AWS, Azure, GCP, AliCloud, OCI, Kubernetes, Cloud Foundry, etc.
  3. Servers and Platforms: VMs, Containers, Pods (Identified by LDAP, Active Directory service accounts, AWS, Azure, GCP, AliCloud, OCI, Kubernetes, TLS Certs
  4. Orchestrators: Nomad, Terraform, Ansible, or Continuous Integration Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) Pipelines where each pipeline usually identified by 2FA methods, App Role, or platform based identity
  5. Vault Agents****:**** acting on behalf of a app/microsevice, typically identified by App role, Cloud credentials, Kubernetes, TLS Certs
  6. Tokens: which are not tied to any identities at all. These should be used sparingly. Hashicorp recommends always associating tokens to an entity alias and token role.

»How do Clients work in Vault?

When anything authenticates to Vault, be it a user, application, machine, etc., it is associated with a unique entity within the Vault identity system. The name reported to the identity systems by the different types of authentication methods varies (list below), each entity is created or verified during authorization. There are scenarios where tokens can be created outside of the identity system, without an associated entity. In this scenario, these tokens are considered clients (for production usage, it should be rare to have any tokens created outside any identity systems).

»But wait, there’s more...

Want to take full advantage of the Vault identity system and how clients are counted? The Vault identity system also has Entity Aliases and Identity Groups.

Vault Identity Entities and Aliases

»Entity Aliases

Entity Aliases enable users or services to authenticate with more than one method and are associated with the same policy to share resources and count as unique entities.

»Identity Groups

Identity Groups within Vault leverage entities, in that Vault enables teams to create and manage logical groupings of entities. Identity Groups that can be based on organizations or teams within companies and can be used to assign policies and metadata, making user management dramatically simpler, especially for automating workflows by using Identity Groups to quickly and easily grant access to secrets and functionality within Vault.

For more on managing access with identity, entities, and more, check out Identity-based Security and Low-trust Networks and the HashiCorp Learn tutorial Identity: Entities and Groups | Vault

»How does Vault avoid counting the same entity twice?

Using the identity system allows for Vault to make sure that entities aren’t counted more than once. Once you determine the identity and authentication method to be used for each, human, application, platform, and CI/CD pipeline, upon authentication for the first time in a billing period, Vault instantiates a unique entity. For example, say you have an application “AppX” that needs to get a secret from Vault using the AppRole method. Since AppX has an associated entity within Vault with associated policies, Vault knows every time that AppX is authenticating and authorizing, so AppX is only counted once.

»Non-entity Tokens

If you chose to use the Token Auth Method without an identity, a non-entity token, to avoid driving up client count, always assign each token to a role and entity alias. HashiCorp recommends creating a Token Role first, with allowable entity aliases and issuing your token with the appropriate role and entity alias name. This is the name that will uniquely identify the client, no matter how many tokens are issued. Without this each token will be counted as a client instead. See more on entity alias below.

»Authentication Methods and how they’re counted in Vault

Below is a list of supported authentication methods within Vault. You can also set up custom auth methods with secure plugins.

Each authentication method has a unique identifier to determine unique identity, similar to a driver license number, that uniquely determines an identity with a driver’s license.

How does this relate to Vault clients? As outlined above, and as an example, if you chose to identify a microservice by AppRole auth method, then assign a role id for that microservice. A role id is the mircoservice’s username and identity. You should not have different microservices use the same role id. Different microservices should use different role ids. However if microservices (or multiple VMs, or containers), are exact copies using the same role id, they will all have the same identity. This is the appropriate security posture to mitigate any risk, and an operator can easily approve or deny access to secrets for that one role id, without affecting other services. It is important as you choose an identity for each human, app, service, platform, server and pipeline, that you pay attention to the name below that makes each method unique and be given an identity.

Auth methodName reported by auth method
AliCloudPrincipal ID
AppRoleRole ID
AWS IAMConfigurable via iam_alias to one of: Role ID (default), IAM unique ID, Full ARN
AWS EC2Configurable via ec2_alias to one of: Role ID (default), EC2 instance ID, AMI ID
AzureSubject (from JWT claim)**
Cloud FoundryApp ID
GitHubUser login name associated with token
Google CloudConfigurable via iam_alias to one of: Role ID (default), Service account unique ID
JWT/OIDCConfigurable via user_claim to one of the presented claims (no default value)**
KerberosUsername
KubernetesService account UID
LDAPUsername
OCIRolename
OktaUsername
RADIUSUsername
TLS CertificateSubject CommonName
Tokenentity_alias, if provided (Note: please ensure that entity_alias is always used)**
Username/PasswordUsername

»Considerations with CI/CD

Orchestrators and Continuous Integration Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) Pipelines such as Nomad, Terraform, Ansible and the like, along with CI/CD tools such as Jenkins, Bamboo, Azure Devops, GitLab and GitHub Ops, and the like, can be used to authenticate to and request secrets from Vault during infrastructure or application/ service deployment. While the discussion below focuses on CI/CD, it is also applicable to orchestrators.

A CI/CD workflow can encompass many pipelines. Let us consider your options:

  1. Master CI/CD identity: Would the overall CI/CD orchestrator be given a master identity (e.g. app role, token with an entity alias), authenticate to Vault, and receive all secrets for all pipelines and all applications/infrastructure to be deployed?
  2. Pipeline Identity: Or would every CI/CD pipeline be given an identity (e.g. app role, token with an entity alias), authenticate to Vault once and retrieve all the secrets for each application/ infrastructure to be deployed??
  3. Pipeline and App/ Service/ Infra identity: Or would every CI/CD pipeline be given an identity (e.g. app role, token with an entity alias), authenticate to Vault once and then give each application/ service/ infrastructure deployed, workflow its own identity, which upon bootstrap, in turn, authenticates to Vault on its own to retrieve a secret?

From a threat model and security assessment perspective, option 3 above, where the pipeline does not have access to any secret, but allows applications, services or infrastructure to get its own secrets upon bootstrapping, is the most secure approach. With options 1 and 2, there is a risk that if someone gets access to your CI/CD workflow (option 1), or your pipelines (option 2), they would gain access to every or some of the secrets used by your apps and services. Using the principle of least privilege, where you only want to give access to secrets where necessary, there should be little or no gap between your secrets distribution and when it is accessed. Therefore one should avoid inadvertently giving your orchestrator and CI/CD tool god-like privileges where it potentially can access every secret for every app, service or infrastructure you deploy.

If someone goes wrong in option 1 and you revoke access, all pipelines are affected. If something goes wrong in option 2 and you revoke access to a pipeline, only that pipeline is affected, and you limit your security risk blast radius. If something goes wrong in option 3 you can just revoke an app or service without affecting everything else. Please carefully consider your security options as you manage security in a dynamic world.

From a Vault client perspective, option 1 is one client, the Master CI/CD identity; option 2 is one client for the Master CI/CD identity, and one client for each pipeline; option 3 is one client for the Master CI/CD identity, one client for each pipeline, and one for each app, service deployed.

»Client Count

The number of active clients using a Vault cluster is the total of:

  • active entities: identity entities that create a token via a login
  • active non-entity tokens: tokens created via a method that is not associated with an entity

Prior to Vault 1.6, this metric could only be measured from the audit log, using the vault-advisor tool. Starting with Vault 1.6, the number of clients per month, or for a contiguous sequence of months, can be measured by Vault itself.

Please refer to Vault Usage Metrics for a step-by-step tutorial and description of how to use the UI.

»Measuring clients

Each time a token is created, Vault checks to see whether it belongs to an identity entity that has already been active in the current month. New entities are added to a log in Vault storage periodically. New tokens without entities are added to the "non-entity token" count.

At the end of each month, Vault creates precomputed reports listing the number of active entities, per namespace, in each time period within a configurable retention period. This process deduplicates entities by ID, so that if an entity is active within every calendar month, it still only counts as one client for the entire year.

There are no client count metrics available until after the first calendar month finishes.

The client counts sum activity from all nodes in a cluster, including batch tokens created by performance standby nodes. Performance secondary clusters have their own client population, and their own client metrics; Vault does not aggregate or deduplicate clients across clusters. However, the logs and precomputed reports are included in DR replication.

»Costs of measurement

Each active entity in the log consumes a few bytes of storage. Vault limits the number of identity entities it records per month (to 656,000) as a safety measure to prevent unbounded storage growth. However, typical storage costs should be much less. 1000 monthly active entities will require about 1.5 MiB of storage capacity over the default 24-month retention period. A smaller amount of additional storage is used for precomputed reports for all valid start/end pairs of months.

»Disabling measurement

To avoid this potentially unwanted storage usage, the client count feature can be disabled via the UI or API. By default, the client count is disabled on open source builds, and enabled on Enterprise binaries. The CLI command to change its state is:

# To enable
$ vault write sys/internal/counters/config enabled=enable

# To disable
$ vault write sys/internal/counters/config enabled=disable

If you disable the client counter, then all complete months and all precomputed reports will remain in storage until their normal expiration time. This allows queries to be run on older data, even if no new data is being collected.

Vault does not report across a disable/enable cycle of the client count. All subsequent reports will start at the time that the feature is enabled.

»Understanding Non-entity tokens

A token without an entity can be created in any of the following ways:

  • A root token creates a token via auth/token/create.
  • Any other token without an entity creates a child token via auth/token/create or a token role.
  • An orphan token is created via auth/token/create-orphan; such a token does not inherit the entity of its creator.
  • A token is created using a token role that specifies orphan=true.
  • An auth method would normally create an entity, but is not allowed to do so, such as:
    • A batch token is created on a performance standby node.
    • A service token is created on a performance secondary replica, using a local mount.

The entity_id field will be empty, or show as n/a, for any token that is classified as a non-entity token:

$ vault token lookup
Key                 Value
---                 -----
entity_id           n/a

To reduce the number of non-entity tokens in use, consider switching to an authentication method such as AppRole instead of handing out directly-created tokens. Ensure that entities and entity aliases exist for all login methods used to create batch tokens.

»API and Permissions

Please see Client Count API for more details. Note that this API is marked as "internal" so its behavior or format may change without warning. The UI is the preferred means of interacting with the client count feature.

For the UI to be able to use the client count feature, it needs read permission to the following paths:

For the UI to be able to modify the configuration settings, it additionally needs update permission to sys/internal/counters/config.