» Vault Commands (CLI)

In addition to a verbose HTTP API, Vault features a command-line interface that wraps common functionality and formats output. The Vault CLI is a single static binary. It is a thin wrapper around the HTTP API. Every CLI command maps directly to the HTTP API internally.

Each command is represented as a command or subcommand. Please see the sidebar for more information about a particular command. This documentation corresponds to the latest version of Vault. If you are running an older version, commands may behave differently. Run vault -h or vault <command> -h to see the help output which corresponds to your version.

To get help, run:

$ vault -h

To get help for a subcommand, run:

$ vault <subcommand> -h

» Exit Codes

The Vault CLI aims to be consistent and well-behaved unless documented otherwise.

  • Local errors such as incorrect flags, failed validations, or wrong numbers of arguments return an exit code of 1.

  • Any remote errors such as API failures, bad TLS, or incorrect API parameters return an exit status of 2

Some commands override this default where it makes sense. These commands document this anomaly.

» Autocompletion

The vault command features opt-in autocompletion for flags, subcommands, and arguments (where supported).

Enable autocompletion by running:

$ vault -autocomplete-install

When you start tying a Vault command, press the <tab> character to show a list of available completions. Type -<tab> to show available flag completions.

If the VAULT_* environment variables are set, the autocompletion will automatically query the Vault server and return helpful argument suggestions.

» Reading and Writing Data

The four most common operations in Vault are read, write, delete, and list. These operations work on most paths in Vault. Some paths will contain secrets, other paths might contain configuration. Whatever it is, the primary interface for reading and writing data to Vault is similar.

To demonstrate basic read and write operations, the built-in key/value (K/V) secrets engine will be used. This engine is automatically mounted and has no external dependencies, making it practical for this introduction. Note that K/V uses slightly different commands for reading and writing: kv get and kv put, respectively.

» Writing Data

To write data to Vault, use the vault kv put command:

$ vault kv put secret/password value=itsasecret

For some secrets engines, the key/value pairs are arbitrary. For others, they are generally more strict. Vault's built-in help will guide you to these restrictions where appropriate.

» stdin

Some commands in Vault can read data from stdin using - as the value. If - is the entire argument, Vault expects to read a JSON object from stdin:

$ echo -n '{"value":"itsasecret"}' | vault kv put secret/password -

In addition to reading full JSON objects, Vault can read just a value from stdin:

$ echo -n "itsasecret" | vault kv put secret/password value=-

» Files

Some commands can also read data from a file on disk. The usage is similar to stdin as documented above. If an argument starts with @, Vault will read it as a file:

$ vault kv put secret/password @data.json

Or specify the contents of a file as a value:

$ vault kv put secret/password value=@data.txt

» Reading Data

After data is persisted, read it back using vault kv get:

$ vault kv get secret/password
Key                 Value
---                 -----
refresh_interval    768h0m0s
value               itsasecret

» Token Helper

By default, the Vault CLI uses a "token helper" to cache the token after authentication. This is conceptually similar to how a website securely stores your session information as a cookie in the browser. Token helpers are customizable, and you can even build your own.

The default token helper stores the token in ~/.vault-token. You can delete this file at any time to "logout" of Vault.

» Environment Variables

The CLI reads the following environment variables to set behavioral defaults. This can alleviate the need to repetitively type a flag. Flags always take precedence over the environment variables.

» VAULT_TOKEN

Vault authentication token. Conceptually similar to a session token on a website, the VAULT_TOKEN environment variable holds the contents of the token. For more information, please see the token concepts page.

» VAULT_ADDR

Address of the Vault server expressed as a URL and port, for example: https://127.0.0.1:8200/.

» VAULT_CACERT

Path to a PEM-encoded CA certificate file on the local disk. This file is used to verify the Vault server's SSL certificate. This environment variable takes precedence over VAULT_CAPATH.

» VAULT_CAPATH

Path to a directory of PEM-encoded CA certificate files on the local disk. These certificates are used to verify the Vault server's SSL certificate.

» VAULT_CLIENT_CERT

Path to a PEM-encoded client certificate on the local disk. This file is used for TLS communication with the Vault server.

» VAULT_CLIENT_KEY

Path to an unencrypted, PEM-encoded private key on disk which corresponds to the matching client certificate.

» VAULT_CLIENT_TIMEOUT

Timeout variable. The default value is 60s.

» VAULT_CLUSTER_ADDR

Address that should be used for other cluster members to connect to this node when in High Availability mode.

» VAULT_MAX_RETRIES

Maximum number of retries when a 5xx error code is encountered. The default is 2, for three total attempts. Set this to 0 or less to disable retrying.

» VAULT_REDIRECT_ADDR

Address that should be used when clients are redirected to this node when in High Availability mode.

» VAULT_SKIP_VERIFY

Do not verify Vault's presented certificate before communicating with it. Setting this variable is not recommended and voids Vault's security model.

» VAULT_TLS_SERVER_NAME

Name to use as the SNI host when connecting via TLS.

» VAULT_CLI_NO_COLOR

If provided, Vault output will not include ANSI color escape sequence characters.

» VAULT_RATE_LIMIT

This enviroment variable will limit the rate at which the vault command sends requests to Vault.

This enviroment variable has the format rate[:burst] (where items in [] are optional). If not specified, the burst value defaults to rate. Both rate and burst are specified in "operations per second". If the environment variable is not specified, then the rate and burst will be unlimited i.e. rate limiting is off by default.

Note: The rate is limited for each invocation of the vault CLI. Since each invocation of the vault CLI typically only makes a few requests, this enviroment variable is most useful when using the Go Vault client API.

» VAULT_MFA

ENTERPRISE ONLY

MFA credentials in the format mfa_method_name[:key[=value]] (items in [] are optional). Note that when using the environment variable, only one credential can be supplied. If a MFA method expects multiple credential values, or if there are multiple MFA methods specified on a path, then the CLI flag -mfa should be used.