»Multi-Factor Authentication

Several auth methods support multi-factor authentication (MFA). Once enabled for a method, users are required to provide additional verification, like a one-time passcode, before being authenticated.

Currently, the "ldap", "okta", "radius", and "userpass" backends support MFA.


When authenticating, users still provide the same information as before, in addition to MFA verification. Usually this is a passcode, but in other cases, like a Duo Push notification, no additional information is needed.

»Via the CLI

$ vault login -method=userpass \
    username=my-username \
    password=test \
$ vault login -method=userpass \
    username=my-username \
    password=test \

»Via the API

The endpoint for the login is the same as for the original method. Additional MFA information should be sent in the POST body encoded as JSON.

$ curl \
    --request POST \
    --data '{"password": "test", "passcode": "111111"}' \

The response is the same as for the original method.


To enable MFA for a supported method, the MFA type must be set in mfa_config. For example:

$ vault write auth/userpass/mfa_config type=duo

This enables the Duo MFA type, which is currently the only MFA type supported. The username used for MFA is the same as the login username, unless the method or MFA type provide options to behave differently (see Duo configuration below).


The Duo MFA type is configured through two paths: duo/config and duo/access.

duo/access contains connection information for the Duo Auth API. To configure:

$ vault write auth/[mount]/duo/access \
    host=[host] \
    ikey=[integration key] \
    skey=[secret key]

duo/config is an optional path that contains general configuration information for Duo authentication. To configure:

$ vault write auth/[mount]/duo/config \
    user_agent="" \
  • user_agent is the user agent to use when connecting to Duo.

  • username_format controls how the username used to login is transformed before authenticating with Duo. This field is a format string that is passed the original username as its first argument and outputs the new username. For example "%s@example.com" would append "@example.com" to the provided username before connecting to Duo.

  • push_info is a string of URL-encoded key/value pairs that provides additional context about the authentication attempt in the Duo Mobile application.

More information can be found through the CLI path-help command.